Updated 2013 stem cell quiz: are you really a guru?

Let’s see how much you really know about stem cells….

Stem Cell Quiz 2016

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Question 1
About how many adult stem cell clinical trials are listed in the global database?
A
40
B
400
C
Nearly 1000
D
Nearly 10,000
E
More than 5,000
Question 1 Explanation: 
A very impressive number! http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=adult+stem+cells&Search=Search
Question 2
What is the apparent current regulatory status of SVF in the US based on public FDA guidance?
A
Practice of Medicine Product
B
361 HCT/P
C
351 biological drug product
D
Not subject to FDA regulation
E
Regulated by state medical boards only
Question 3
What year were human ES cells first successfully produced and cultured?
A
1993
B
1994
C
2002
D
1998
E
2003
Question 3 Explanation: 
Jaime Thomson of U of Wisconsin first cultured human ES cells in 1998.
Question 4

What year was the first publication on iPS cells?

A
2003
B
2004
C
2005
D
2006
E
2007
Question 4 Explanation: 
The seminal paper on mouse iPS cells was published in 2006.
Question 5
Who first made iPS cells?
A
Yamanaka
B
Thomson
C
Jaenisch
D
Daley
E
Hochedlinger
Question 5 Explanation: 
The Nobel Prize was well deserved for this work.
Question 6
What is the most accurate statement about human pluripotent cells?
A
Can make all known types of human cells
B
Can differentiate and self-renew
C
Can make all types of human cells except extraembryonic tissues
D
Only embryonic stem cells fit that category
E
Only embryonic stem cells fit that category
Question 6 Explanation: 
Pluripotent stem cells are now defined as those able to make all cells except extraembryonic tissues such as placenta.
Question 7
What does the acronym SCNT stand for?
A
Stem Cell Nuclear Transplant
B
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transplant
C
Stem Cell Nuclear Transfer
D
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
E
Stem Cell Novo Transplant
Question 8
Who characterized the very first embryonic stem cells?
A
Thomson
B
Yamanaka
C
Evans and Kaufman
D
Thomson and Kaufman
E
Evans, Kaufman, and Martin
Question 8 Explanation: 
Martin Evans, Matthew Kaufman, and Gail Martin produced the first mouse ES cells around the same time using somewhat different protocols.
Question 9
What entity started the very first FDA approved human ES cell-based clinical trial?
A
Advanced Cell Technology
B
iPierian
C
UC Irvine
D
Geron
E
Stanford
Question 9 Explanation: 
Geron's OPC trial was the first FDA approved clinical trial on a human ES cell-based drug. Note that Hans Keirstead's work which led to the Geron trials was originally funded by the Roman Reed Spinal Cord Injury Research Act
Question 10

What California institution opened the first CIRM-funded stem cell center?

A
Stanford
B
UCSD
C
UCSF
D
UC Davis
E
USC
F
UCLA
Question 10 Explanation: 
UC Davis opened the first CIRM-funded stem cell institute in California (Go UCD!)
Question 11
What institution pioneered the first successful stem cell transplantation therapy?
A
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
B
Stanford
C
MD Anderson
D
Harvard
E
UCSF
F
UCLA
G
Oxford
Question 11 Explanation: 
The "Hutch" as it is called pioneered bone marrow transplantation before it was even known to be a stem cell-based transplant.
Question 12
What year was the first mammal, Dolly, cloned?
A
1994
B
1995
C
1996
D
1997
E
2001
Question 12 Explanation: 
Hello Dolly!
Question 13
What is the current iPS cell human clinical study statusĀ in Japan as of the beginning of 2016?
A
No active human clinical studies
B
One active human clinical study
C
Two active human clinical studies
D
Three active human clinical studies
E
Four active human clinical studies
F
None of the above
Question 13 Explanation: 
The study of pioneer Dr. Masayo Takahashi was put on hold last year, but hopefully should resume soon.
Question 14
How long post-in vitro fertilization are the blastocysts used to make human ES cells?
A
4-5 days
B
0-1
C
1-2
D
3-4
E
7-8
Question 15
Which of these statements is false
A
The field of pluripotent stem cells began with cancers
B
Stem cells have similar properties to cancer cells
C
Adult stem cells are by definition safe
D
Teratoma are not always benign
E
Teratoma assays were not originally assays of pluripotency
Question 15 Explanation: 
No stem cell treatment, whether embryonic or adult, is definitively safe
Question 16
How many stem cell/cellular therapies have been approved under the breakthrough therapy designation by the FDA so far?
A
0
B
1
C
2
D
3
E
4
Question 17
This structure plays a role in limb and digit regeneration in salamanders and other "lower" animals
A
Blastocyst
B
Blastomere
C
Blastoma
D
Blastocoel
E
Blastema
Question 17 Explanation: 
After loss of a digit or limb, animals such as salamanders form a blastema consisting of pluripotent stem cells
Question 18
Which of the following is true about transdifferentiation
A
It is the same as dedifferentiation
B
It is the process of changing one cell type into a fundamentally different one
C
It is the process of changing a non-stem cell into a stem cell
D
It is the same as induced pluripotency
E
It has been used to make blood cells
Question 19

Which of these meanings is not used in other languages to mean "stem cell"?

A
Mother cell
B
Trunk cell
C
Root cell
D
Basic cell
E
Home cell
F
God cell
G
All of the above
H
Flow cell
I
None of the above
Question 20
Which of the following is most accurate regarding FDA regulation of stem cell clinic doctors
A
FDA has no jurisdiction to regulate stem cell clinic doctors
B
FDA can regulate the devices, procedures, and products used by the doctors, but not the doctors themselves directly who are regulated by state medical boards
C
FDA can regulate both the doctors and any products or procedures they use; authority supercedes state boards
D
FDA can only regulate the drugs prescribed to patients at stem cell clinics
E
FDA authority is completely unclear at this time
Question 21
Which Clinical Trial Phase is Globally Under Pressure for Possible Skipping to Speed Up The Process, Which Could Increase Risks to Patients?
A
Phase I
B
Phase II
C
Phase I and II
D
Phase IV
E
Phase III
Question 22
Which of the following is true about embryonic stem cells?
A
They are the only type of pluripotent stem cell
B
They have been proven safe by the FDA
C
Scientist believe they can cure every disease
D
They come from abortions
E
Under certain conditions they can cause tumors
Question 22 Explanation: 
ES cells can form teratoma and more rarely other types of tumors. While they are likely to form the basis for treatments of many disease, a panacea cure is hype.
Question 23
Which of the following is false about human embryonic stem cells?
A
They can only be made from human embryos
B
They can be made by SCNT or parthenogenesis
C
They are most often derived from material produced in a lab that would otherwise be most often be medical waste
D
Adult human stem cells were discovered decades before human ES cells.
E
Republican President George W. Bush approved the use of many ES cell lines
Question 24
Which of the following is true about iPS cells?
A
They were first made in the U.S.
B
They are not tumorigenic
C
They will always be used in an autologous manner
D
Several people including Peyton Manning have had iPS cell-based transplants
E
They are more powerful disease modeling tools than ES cells
Question 25
Which paradox is true about stem cells?
A
Most stem cell therapies will not transplant stem cells
B
Pluripotent stem cells are more similar to cancer cells than to any other cell type
C
The developers of the first stem cell treatment did not know their treatment involved stem cells
D
Adult stem cell research does not always use only adult stem cells
E
The main assay scientists use to measure the pluripotency of stem cells is not inherently a pluripotency assay
F
All of the above
G
None of the above
Question 25 Explanation: 
All are true. Stem cell therapies will almost always use differentiated cells made from stem cells not the stem cells themselves. The pluripotent stem cell field started with studies of teratocarcinoma cancer cells. Bone marrow transplantation was not known to be a stem cell-based therapy when it was being developed and first used. Adult stem cell research often can involve stem cells from children under the age of 18. Some people even call fetal stem cells by the "adult" stem cell name. The teratoma assay is used to measure stem cell pluripotency by most labs, but it was for many years first used as a tumorigenesis assay.
Question 26
What does IRB stand for?
A
Institutional Review Board
B
Institutional Research Board
C
Independent Review Board
D
Independent Research Board
E
Investigational Research Board
Question 27
Which of the following is a false statement about cancer stem cells?
A
They can also be called "tumor initiating cells"
B
They are rare cells
C
They express many of the same genes as normal stem cells
D
They have been proven to be found in small numbers in every type of cancer
E
They are controversial
Question 27 Explanation: 
All the statements are true except the one that says every type of cancer has them. As of today, most scientists think that not every tumor has cancer stem cells
Question 28

What statement about stem cell cosmetics is correct?

A
FDA-approved stem cell cosmetic treatments are becoming more widely available
B
Physicians who perform stem cell cosmetic treatments must have taken a residency that teaches them how to perform the procedures
C
Stem cell cosmetic treatments are scientifically proven to work
D
Stem cell cosmetic treatments are becoming widely available despite generally not yet having been FDA approved
E
Most dermatologists receive training in stem cell biology during their careers
Question 28 Explanation: 
Stem cell cosmetics is a burgeoning industry likely to take in billions of dollars, but it is nonetheless not vetted by the FDA
Question 29

Which professional sports league has a policy on stem cell treatments?

A
NBA
B
NFL
C
MLB
D
All of the above
E
None of the above
Question 29 Explanation: 
To my knowledge, no sports league has a policy on its athletes getting stem cell-related treatments despite an increasing number doing so.
Question 30

What does the acronym BLA stand for?

A
Biologics License Applications
B
Biological License Administration
C
Biological Law Applications
D
Biologics Licensing Administration
E
Biologics Laboratory Applications
Question 30 Explanation: 
Here it is: http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/BiologicsLicenseApplicationsBLAProcess/default.htm
Question 31

What does the acronym IND stand for?

A
Individual Novel Drug
B
Institutional New Drug
C
Investigational New Drug
D
Individual New Drug
E
Industrial New Drug
Question 31 Explanation: 
IND is the name for investigational new drug with the FDA
Question 32

What is an FDA form 483 issued for?

A
After an FDA visit, this form lists observations
B
After an FDA visit, this form lists violations
C
After an FDA visit, this form lists injunctions
D
After an FDA visit, this form is used to officially warn a company it will be shut down
E
After an FDA visit, this form lists pertinent rules
Question 32 Explanation: 
The form 483 is used to list FDA "observations", which are concerns it expects a company to address within a matter of a couple weeks.
Question 33

What does HCT/P stand for?

A
Human Cell Therapy Practice
B
Human Cell and Treatment Product
C
Human Stem Cell Treatment Product
D
Human Cell and Tissue Product
E
Human Cell Therapy Product
Question 33 Explanation: 
It stands for "human cell and tissue product"
Question 34
What were two major American stem cell biotechs purchased by Japanese Pharma recently?
A
Astellas and CDI
B
CDI and Helios
C
Ocata and CDI
D
Ocata and Astellas
E
Octata and Helios
Question 35
Some how proposed changing the meaning of the MSC to reflect this broader term.
A
Modified Stem Cell
B
Molecular Stem Cell
C
Mesoderm Stem Cell
D
Monkey Stem Cell
E
Mesenchymal Stem Cell
F
Mesenchymal Stromal Cell
Question 35 Explanation: 
It stands for Mesenchymal Stromal Cell, an "umbrella" type of cell found diversely in adipose and bone marrow.
Question 36
Who won the Nobel Prize with Yamanaka for reprogramming in 2012?
A
Rudy Jaenisch
B
Jamie Thomson
C
Irv Weissman
D
John Gurdon
E
no one
Question 37
According to the most current court ruling, what is true about the FDA's authority to regulate propagated stem cell therapies in the U.S.?
A
Cannot regulate them as a drug
B
Can regulate them as a drug, but only in certain states
C
Can regulate them as a drug
D
Cannot regulate them as a drug, but can require pre-clinical data
E
Can regulate them as a drug, but only if cells are exposed to FBS
Question 38
What is the current federal legal status of human reproductive cloning in the U.S.?
A
Illegal
B
Legal, but only for celebrities
C
Illegal, except in California
D
No law so legal
E
Legal, except in NY
Question 39
What is the most common move that unlicensed American stem cell companies make to try to avoid FDA oversight?
A
Treat patients in China
B
Treat patients in Europe
C
Treat patients in Korea
D
Treat patients in Mexico/Latin America
E
Treat patients in Canada
Question 40
Which of the follow is true about autologous stem cell treatments?
A
They are by definition safe
B
They are always unsafe
C
They are can also be allogeneic
D
They are more affordable
E
They are treatment with your own cells
Question 41
Which celebrity had a stem cell treatment and there is a video of the medical procedure on the Internet?
A
Rick Perry
B
Peyton Manning
C
Fergie
D
Suzanne Somers
E
Usain Bolt
Question 41 Explanation: 
see here: https://www.ipscell.com/2012/02/from-boobs-to-baldness-stem-cells-go-cosmetic/
Question 42
What is the Niche? (beyond the name of this blog)
A
The home of stem cells
B
A stem cell biotech company
C
A French stem cell regulatory agency
D
A type of stem cell in the bone marrow
E
A cosmetic made from plant stem cells
Question 43
How do you pronounce Niche?
A
Nitch
B
Naych
C
Naysh
D
Neesh
E
nosh
Question 44
Based on current data, what is FALSE in terms of what happens to stem cells after IV transplant?
A
Most die
B
They can illicit an immune response even under autologous conditions
C
Some are likely to remain in the patient the rest of their lifetime
D
Most end up in the lungs
E
They almost all home in to and permanently engraft at the target place of injury in the body
Question 45
What was the big event related to human cloning that happened in 2013?
A
First normal human baby was cloned
B
First normal primate was cloned
C
First normal human ES cells were cloned
D
First Neanderthal was cloned
E
Human cloning was outlawed in the USA
Question 46
Which is NOT an FDA program under consideration/active that could expand access of very ill patients to novel stem cell therapies?
A
Breakthrough designation
B
Priority Review
C
Fast Track
D
Compassionate Use
E
Express Transplant
Question 47
What does SVF stand for?
A
Stromal Vessel Formulation
B
Stem Very Fast
C
Stem Vascular Fraction
D
Stromal Vascular Fraction
E
Stromal Very Fast
Question 48
Who is the current President of CIRM?
A
Alan Trounson
B
Jonathan Thomas
C
Randal Mills
D
Robert Lanza
E
Robert Klein
Question 49
What does homologous use mean?
A
A doctor must be a specialist in the condition they are treating with stem cells
B
Cells must be used in a manner analogous to the tissue from which they were isolated or they are a drug
C
Any one type of stem cells must be used in the same manner every time at a clinic
D
Each clinic must only use one type of stem cells
E
Stem cells must only be used from the patient themselves from whom they were isolated
Question 50
What is the current trend in Japan related to IPSC translation?
A
Shift toward allogeneic
B
Emphasis on autologous
C
Will no longer be permitted soon
D
Shift to direct reprogramming/transdifferentiation
E
Use of CRISPR for the reprogramming factors
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2 thoughts on “Updated 2013 stem cell quiz: are you really a guru?


  1. Thanks for the effort, Paul. That was fun, and I learned some cool fun facts. Too bad you didn’t include “which is closer to the Sun”….pretty confident in that one.

  2. Pingback: Think you are a true stem cell guru? Take my challenging 50-question stem cell quiz and find out.

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