Perspectives on final RIKEN report on STAP cell scandal & what comes next

STAP cells FigureThe Japanese research institute RIKEN has come full circle in a way on the STAP cell scandal. Note that the STAP papers included not only authors from RIKEN, but also from Brigham and Women’s Hospital/Harvard Medical School.

With its final report released today (also a powerpoint of images were released including the one showing a figure posted here of reportedly made up data published in a STAP paper), RIKEN seems to now have handled this complicated mess in a relatively rigorous, scientific manner that paves the way for moving on from it.

What would you have done in RIKEN’s shoes? It’s not a pleasant thing to contemplate.

As a research institution, what do you do if a potential major scientific scandal is cropping up under your roof? It’s unpredictable and dangerous and couldn’t have come at a worse time for RIKEN. So how do you handle it? What would you have done?

RIKEN was faced with this kind of unpleasant reality early this year. A very high moment for RIKEN with the publication of two seemingly groundbreaking Nature papers including numerous RIKEN authors quickly headed the other direction and began unraveling.

By February, only weeks after the STAP cell papers were published supposedly reporting the creation of power stem cells called “STAP cells”, there were signs that the research was plagued with profound problems including signs of potential misconduct.

At that point in February and March, what should the leaders at RIKEN do/have done? I’m sure they were asking themselves this tough question.

There have been ups and downs as to how RIKEN has handled STAP, but in the new report there are indications of a sober, objective and more thorough approach to STAP. I think this is a positive, constructive step even if the conclusions are negative and sad.

Dennis Normile has a nice summary over at Science News of the RIKEN report:

“The committee determined that 3 supposed STAP stem cell lines were actually likely to be 3 previously existing embryonic stem (ES) cell lines. “It is unlikely that there was accidental contamination by three different ES cells, and it is suspected that the contamination may have occurred artificially…”

This new RIKEN report on STAP has concluded that what were claimed to be STAP cells were almost certainly embryonic stem cells (ESCs) instead. It cannot be sure if the ESCs were intentionally and fraudulently used, but it says that is probable. If it was done on purpose RIKEN also cannot be sure who did it.

The report concludes that STAP first author Haruko Obokata, who RIKEN earlier had determined committed certain STAP-related misconduct, committed additional misconduct over certain data, but the report also lays some of the blame for STAP to lack of proper supervision by senior STAP authors Yoshiki Sasai, Teruhiko Wakayama, and Hitoshi Niwa. One remaining thing we do not know is what this report means for Wakayama or Niwa, the latter still being at RIKEN.

So what does all of this mean and where do things go from here?

While there is still some more to resolve on the Japan side of STAP, my impression is that this report along with Obokata’s resignation allows for RIKEN to really begin to move on from STAP.

Normile’s article concludes pointing towards where the STAP-related focus may turn next:

One of the papers’ co-authors has been beyond the reach of RIKEN investigators: Charles Vacanti, a tissue engineer at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, an affiliate of Harvard Medical School. Obokata initiated her work on STAP cells while a post-doc in Vacanti’s lab. Mutsuhiro Arinobu, a RIKEN executive director, said that although they have been in contact with Harvard, input from Vacanti “is not included in this investigation.”

Harvard and Brigham and Women’s Hospital may or may not be conducting STAP investigations of their own. However, certainly at this point relatively speaking key unanswered questions remain on the Harvard side of STAP.

Do You Believe in STAP Stem Cells? One Final Poll in 2014

It’s been many months since I last asked, so for one last time in 2014, here’s a poll on your views of STAP stem cells.

What do you think? You can vote once per day. I am going to follow up with a couple different STAP-related polls this week, but this is the last one of 2014 on the actual STAP cells.

Newly Update Comprehensive STAP Cell Timeline with Key Events & Links

Here is an updated timeline for the major events (and links) for the STAP fiasco. If you think absolutely critical events are missing, let me know in the comments and I’ll consider adding them.

Jan 29Nature publishes STAP papers online
Jan 29Postpub review of papers on ipscell.com
Jan 30First STAP polling starts: respondents mostly positive
Feb 2Surprising interview w/Vacanti: STAP easy to make, same as spore cells
Feb 4First key Pubpeer comment on splicing in Figure 1i
Feb 6Top 5 reasons for doubts on STAP
Feb 7STAP crowdsourcing experiment starts
Feb 13First Pubpeer comment on STAP placenta issue
Feb 13JuuichiJigen first post on STAP problems
Feb 14RIKEN & Nature begin STAP investigations
Feb 27Wakayama interview
Mar 10Wakayama calls for STAP paper retraction
March 13JuuichiJigen post on Obokata Ph.D. thesis problems
March 14RIKEN alleges that Obokata committed misconduct
Mar 24Nature rejects Ken Lee’s STAP paper showing that STAP doesn’t work
Apr 1Vacanti Harvard STAP talk for this fateful day was cancelled
Apr 1RIKEN announces Obokata guilty of misconduct
Apr 9Obokata admits mistakes, but not misconduct
April 25Head of RIKEN STAP investigation committee, Shunsuke Ishi, resigns amid allegations of his own paper problems
May 8F1000 Publishes Lee Lab Paper showing STAP fails
May 27Call for Nature retraction of STAP papers
May 28Obokata OKs letter, but not article retraction
Jun 3Obokata agrees to retract STAP article too
June 12External committee (chaired by Teruo Kishi) issues report calling for zero-based restructuring of Riken Center for Developmental Biology (CDB), the institute with which Obokata, and co-authors Yoshiki Sasai and Hitoshi Niwa are affiliated, and where co-author Teruhiko Wakayama was formerly affiliated
Jun 16Genetics data suggest STAP cells involved mix or switch
July 2STAP Nature papers retracted
August 5Tragically, one of the scientists involved in STAP, Yoshiki Sasai, commits suicide
September 3Vacanti & Kojima reaffirm absolute confidence in STAP but issue new STAP protocol
December 19Obokata and Niwa fail in STAP final replication effort
December 20Obokata resigns from RIKEN

Obokata Can’t Reproduce STAP Cells

Obokata press conference

Signaling a nightmare ending to what was originally a fairy tale scientific story, the Japanese press (e.g. here) are reporting that Haruko Obokata has herself been unable to make STAP cells again as part of a RIKEN team testing STAP under watchful supervision.

In advance of a scheduled RIKEN press conference tomorrow, newspapers including Asahi Shimbun are reporting now that RIKEN will announce STAP was not replicated even with the involvement of Obokata.

Earlier this year RIKEN had said their internal investigation had found Obokata committed misconduct in her STAP research published in January as two papers in Nature that were later retracted.

Only three months ago, senior STAP paper author Charles Vacanti and collaborating scientist Koji Kojima of Brigham and Women’s Hospital reaffirmed their belief in STAP and posted a new STAP protocol on-line. They said STAP was a phenomenon in which “we have absolute confidence” and stressed the importance of adding ATP into the mix to make STAP, which had not been previously emphasized. It’s unknown if Obokata’s STAP replication efforts included trying the newer Vacanti protocol with ATP.

It’s unclear at this time what this somewhat final failed replication effort will mean for the STAP authors.

STAP Voted as the Stem Cell Story of the Year for 2014

Stem Cell Story of 2014When I asked the readers of this blog what they felt was the biggest stem cell story of 2014 in a poll, they overwhelmingly picked the STAP cell scandal.

For background on STAP you can toggle through the many STAP cell pieces on this blog here, see a STAP timeline, and a STAP image gallery.

Basically, STAP was a bogus scientific claim about a supposedly simple reprogramming method to make powerful stem cells induced by cellular stress.

Despite many flaws in this STAP research and the fact that it seemed way too good to be true, STAP was published in two Nature papers that came out toward the end of January 2014 that are now retracted.

The STAP mess was the product of many things going wrong, almost a perfect storm of research missteps and some have said even misconduct as well as arguably puzzling editorial decision making at one of the most prestigious journals in the world, Nature. Discussion of STAP pointed to more specific, serious problems. Image and data reuse. Plagiarism. Hype. Rush to publish. Unhealthy competition. Gift authorship. And more.

At some point we need to move on from STAP and thankfully that is happening, but there is still more to discuss before we can really fully move on and focus more squarely on the positive stuff. For example, a few puzzles remain about STAP such as where the supposed STAP cells really came from and also how Nature ended up publishing the STAP work when the scientific reviewers that Nature itself enlisted to review the submitted manuscripts skewered them.

The younger generations of scientists in the stem cell field are also watching how the field handles STAP and other events that invoke similar problems too. What lessons will they and the public take home from all of this? There are so many very real, wonderfully positive developments ongoing in the stem cell and regenerative medicine fields that I would rather be discussing instead of STAP, but we have to be careful. The risk that STAP-like events pose to our field comes in the form of a possible harmful narrative of the stem cell field fundamentally losing the public trust.